September 26, 2023
Learn the differences between physical and chemical changes when a substance is subjected to melting processes.

Is Melting a Physical or Chemical Change?

Have you ever wondered if melting a substance is a physical or chemical change? The process of melting can be confusing for many people. In this article, we will explore the science behind melting and whether it is a physical or chemical change.

The Difference between Physical and Chemical Changes

Before we dive into the details of melting, it’s important to understand the difference between physical and chemical changes. A physical change is a change that affects the physical properties of a substance, such as size, shape, and state (solid, liquid, or gas). On the other hand, a chemical change is a change that alters the actual chemical composition of a substance.

What is Melting?

Melting is a physical change that occurs when a solid substance is heated to a certain temperature and becomes a liquid. The temperature at which melting occurs, known as the melting point, is a characteristic property of each substance. For example, water has a melting point of 0°C (32°F) and iron has a melting point of 1,538°C (2,800°F).

When a solid substance is heated, the heat energy causes the molecules to vibrate faster and break apart from their fixed position. This results in a loss of the solid’s fixed shape and becomes a fluid. This physical change does not change the chemical identity and composition of the substance which means melting is not a chemical change.

Scientific Evidence and Experiments

Several scientific experiments have been conducted to study the effect of melting on different substances. One classic example is the experiment of heating ice cubes. As the ice cubes are heated, they melt and form liquid water. The process of melting in this case is a physical change and the chemical composition of water remains the same.

Another experiment is to heat a metal until it melts. As the metal is heated, it undergoes a physical change and becomes a liquid. In contrast, if a metal is heated beyond the melting point, it can react chemically with the air or other substances in the environment, forming a new compound. In this case, the process of melting can lead to a chemical change due to the reaction with the environment.

Implications of Melting on Different Substances

The process of melting affects different substances differently. For example, when ice melts, it becomes liquid water at 0°C (32°F) and can flow and take the shape of its container. On the other hand, when a metal like iron melts, it remains relatively dense and retains most of its physical properties as a solid.

Some substances, like organic compounds, can undergo a process called sublimation where they change directly from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase. This is another physical change that does not alter the chemical composition of the substance.


In conclusion, melting is a physical change that does not alter the chemical composition of the substance. It is important to understand the difference between physical and chemical changes to be able to analyze the melting process accurately. The process of melting is a fascinating and important aspect of science that has significant implications in our daily lives.

Additional Resources

For further reading on the science of melting, check out these resources:

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