May 23, 2024
Walking is often disregarded as a form of exercise, but it has numerous benefits, including improved heart health, weight loss, stress relief, and cognitive function. This article explores the advantages of walking over other forms of exercise, how to turn walking into a workout, and the science behind its benefits.


Physical activity is a crucial aspect of a healthy lifestyle that can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases, increase longevity, and improve overall wellbeing. However, many people associate exercise with strenuous workouts at the gym that require a significant amount of time, effort, and money. The reality is that exercise can take many forms, and one of the most accessible and underrated options is walking.

In this article, we will explore the benefits of walking as exercise, how it compares to other activities like running, how to turn it into a workout, the science behind its benefits, and even some tips to make it more enjoyable.

The benefits of walking as exercise

Walking is a low-impact aerobic activity that can bring various health benefits to people of all ages, fitness levels, and lifestyles. Here are some of the most significant advantages of walking as exercise:

Improved heart health

Regular walking can reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke by lowering blood pressure, decreasing LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol), and improving blood circulation. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), walking for at least 30 minutes a day can help maintain heart health and prevent arteries from hardening.

Weight loss

Walking is a simple and effective way to burn calories and lose weight. Depending on your pace, body weight, and terrain, you can burn between 80 and 150 calories per mile walked, which can add up to significant amounts of calories over time. Additionally, walking can help increase muscle mass and metabolism, contributing to long-term weight management.

Stress relief

Walking can be a powerful stress-relieving activity that helps clear the mind, reduce tension, and release endorphins (the “feel-good” hormones) in the brain. A study published in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine found that walking for 30 minutes per day for ten days reduced perceived stress and negative affectivity among participants.

Improved mood and cognitive function

Walking can boost your mood, creativity, and cognitive abilities by increasing blood flow to the brain, stimulating neural pathways, and promoting the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that supports nerve cell growth. A study published in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience found that older adults who engaged in regular walking improved their cognitive function and memory.

Walking vs. Running: Which is better for you?

Walking and running are two popular forms of cardio exercise that can provide similar health benefits but differ in intensity, duration, and impact on the body. Here are some factors to consider when choosing between walking and running:

Advantages and disadvantages of walking and running

Walking is a low-impact, low-intensity exercise that is easy on the joints, yet provides mild cardiovascular benefits. Running, on the other hand, is a high-impact, high-intensity exercise that can improve cardiovascular fitness and burn more calories but also carries a higher risk of injuries. Depending on your health status, fitness goals, and personal preferences, one activity may be more suitable than the other.

Factors to consider when choosing between walking and running

Some factors to consider when deciding between walking and running include your age, weight, fitness level, current health condition, time availability, and access to suitable surfaces and equipment. For instance, if you are recovering from an injury, have joint problems, or are overweight, walking may be a better option. On the other hand, if you want to maximize calorie burn, improve endurance, or participate in races, running may be more effective.

When walking can be as effective or even more advantageous than running

Although running is often perceived as the superior form of exercise, walking can be just as effective or even more advantageous in some regards. For example, a study published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology found that walking briskly for at least 150 minutes per week was just as effective as running in lowering the risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Additionally, walking is more sustainable and accessible than running, as it requires less equipment, can be performed indoors or outdoors, and can be incorporated into daily routines easily.

How to turn your daily walk into a workout

Walking can be an ideal form of exercise for beginners, people with limited mobility, or those who prefer a low-impact option. However, to reap the most significant benefits, you may need to modify your walking routine and make it more challenging. Here are some tips for increasing intensity and calorie burn during walking:

Tips for increasing intensity and calorie burn during walking

Some ways to increase the intensity and calorie burn during walking include walking faster, walking uphill, carrying weights, incorporating intervals of fast walking and recovery, and using a treadmill with an incline setting. The AHA recommends aiming for a moderate-intensity pace, which is about 3-4 miles per hour for most people. You can also track your steps, distance, and heart rate using a fitness tracker or smartphone app to monitor your progress and motivate yourself.

Strategies for incorporating movements that engage more muscles, such as inclines and declines, weights, and speed variations

To make your walking routine more challenging and engaging, you can incorporate movements that engage more muscles and add variety. For instance, walking uphill or climbing stairs can activate your glutes, hamstrings, and calves while also increasing your heart rate. Similarly, carrying light weights or using resistance bands while walking can strengthen your arms, shoulders, and core muscles. Finally, varying your walking speed or direction can challenge your coordination and balance while burning more calories.

Safety precautions when intensifying your walking routine

While increasing the intensity of your walking routine can bring numerous benefits, it’s essential to do it gradually and safely. Some precautions to take include wearing supportive shoes with proper arch and heel support, stretching before and after walking, staying hydrated, avoiding extreme weather conditions, and consulting a doctor if you have any underlying medical conditions or concerns.

The science behind the benefits

Walking is a versatile and adaptable activity that can bring multiple physiological and mental changes to the body over time. Here are some of the science-backed benefits of walking:

The physiological and mental changes that occur during and after walking

Walking can result in various physiological and mental changes in the body, including reduced blood pressure, improved insulin sensitivity, decreased inflammation, increased BDNF levels, and improved mood and anxiety. According to a review published in Frontiers in Physiology, regular walking can also enhance bone density, immune function, and metabolic health.

Comparative benefits of other types of exercise

Although walking may not be the most intensive or glamorous form of exercise, it can bring comparable or even superior benefits to other types of activities, such as cycling, swimming, or weightlifting. For instance, a study published in Sports Medicine compared the effects of walking, running, cycling, and swimming on various health parameters and found that all activities improved cardiovascular health similarly, but walking and running were the most effective for reducing body fat and improving blood lipid profiles.

The relation between the frequency, intensity, and duration of walking and its effects on the body

The frequency, intensity, and duration of your walking routine can affect the extent of its health benefits. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week, such as brisk walking. However, higher amounts of exercise, such as 300 minutes or more, can bring additional benefits and confer a lower risk of chronic diseases.

Walking for health and longevity

Walking can not only provide immediate benefits but also lead to long-term improvements in health and longevity. Here are some of the long-term benefits of walking:

Long-term benefits of walking

Some long-term benefits of walking include reduced risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, improved bone health and density, enhanced immune system, and slower cognitive decline. Additionally, regular walking can increase longevity by up to seven years, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Managing chronic conditions with regular walking

Walking can be a useful tool for managing chronic conditions, such as arthritis, back pain, and depression. Walking can help reduce pain, stiffness, and inflammation in the joints and muscles, enhance spinal stability and posture, and boost mood and self-esteem.

The role of walking in preventing premature mortality

Walking can also have a significant impact on reducing premature mortality and increasing life expectancy. A study published in PLOS Medicine found that walking for at least 30 minutes per day was associated with a 20% lower risk of premature death, regardless of age, gender, or body weight.

Making walking more fun

While walking can be an enjoyable and accessible activity, it can also become repetitive or boring if you don’t have ways to spice it up. Here are some tips to make walking more fun and engaging:

Social walking groups and community events

Joining a walking group or participating in community events, such as charity walks or park walks, can provide social support, motivation, and a sense of community. You can also discover new walking routes, experience different environments, and bond with other like-minded walkers.

Music, audiobooks, and podcasts to enhance the experience

Listening to music, audiobooks, or podcasts during your walk can distract you from fatigue or boredom and stimulate your mind. You can create a personalized walking playlist with your favorite tunes or explore new genres and artists. Alternatively, you can listen to educational podcasts or audiobooks that motivate you or teach you something new.

Combining walking with nature, hobbies, or other activities

Walking can be a great opportunity to immerse yourself in nature, pursue your hobbies, or explore new activities. You can go for a nature walk and spot birds, plants, or animals, or take photographs of scenic views. Alternatively, you can use your walking time to practice mindfulness, meditation, yoga, or other gentle exercises that complement your routine.


Walking is an underrated but powerful form of exercise that can provide numerous health benefits, ranging from improved heart health and weight loss to stress relief and cognitive function. By modifying your walking routine, incorporating strategies to increase intensity, and making it more enjoyable with social, auditory, or sensory stimuli, you can maximize its effectiveness and enjoyment. With the help of science-backed evidence, regular walking can become a staple of your daily routine, paving the way for a healthier and happier lifestyle.

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